In the same section Newman thus summarizes the battle and the triumph: such was the conflict of Christianity with the old established Paganism , which was almost dead before Christianity appeared; with the Oriental Mysteries, flitting widely to and fro like spectres; with the Gnostics , who made Knowledge all in all, despised the many, and called Catholics mere children in the Truth : with the Neo-Platonists , men of literature, pedants, visionaries, or courtiers; with the Manichees , who professed to seek truth by Reason , not by Faith ; with the fluctuating teachers of the school of Antioch , the time-serving Eusebians , and the reckless versatile Arians ; with the fanatic Montanists and harsh Novatians , who shrank from the Catholic doctrine , without power to propagate their own. These sects had no stay or consistence, yet they contained elements of truth amid their error , and had Christianity been as they, it might have resolved into them; but it had that hold of the truth which gave its teaching a gravity, a directness, a consistency, a sternness, and a force to which its rivals, for the most part, were strangers. (ibid., viii)
Saturn: once king of the gods, his place was taken by his son (Jupiter). Saturn was the god of seed-sowing. A merry Roman holiday or festival, the Saturnalia, was named after him.
Jupiter: god of the sky, he was the most important god.
Juno: Jupiter's wife, she looked after women.
Neptune: Jupiter's brother, he was the god of the sea.
Minerva: goddess of wisdom and women's work, such as weaving cloth.
Mars: god of war, though originally god of farming.
Venus: goddess of love, she was the lover of Mars.