Programs of nanoelectronics are inquisitive about band engineered Ge-SiGe middle-shell nanowires and subject-impact transistors , spin delivery in germanium nanowires, and the electronic homes of graphene bilayers . In marine and defence it's far used to reduce the noise and offer proper signalling and routes. In textile enterprise there may be development in fibre or yarn. New researcher initiatives about 18 in electronics tasks and 22 in textile are in manner, an annual budget of $20,000 million is been funded to Nanotek corporations . The programs involve in nanoelectronics, Renewable and sustainable strength, civil and mechanical engineering, marine & defence.
However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without molecules. These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids , are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se . Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance. Examples of such substances are mineral salts (such as table salt ), solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite.