Aequorin has a number of advantages over other Ca 2+ indicators: because the protein is large, it has a low leakage rate from cells compared to lipophilic dyes such as DiI . It lacks phenomena of intracellular compartmentalization or sequestration as is often seen for Voltage-sensitive dyes , and does not disrupt cell functions or embryo development. Moreover, the light emitted by the oxidation of coelenterazine does not depend on any optical excitation, so problems with auto-fluorescence are eliminated.  The primary limitation of aequorin is that the prosthetic group coelenterazine is irreversibly consumed to produce light, and requires continuous addition of coelenterazine into the media. Such issues led to developments of other genetically encoded calcium sensors including the calmodulin -based sensor cameleon ,  developed by Roger Tsien and the troponin -based sensor, TN-XXL , developed by Oliver Griesbeck. 
Bioluminescence can also be used as a tool by researchers to learn more about the ocean and its mysteries. Edie Widder, a scientist who specializes in bioluminescence, was with a group attempting to film the giant squid for the first time. She suspected that the giant squid would be lured to a bioluminescent light attached to a fake squid—not because it wanted to eat the small fake squid, but because its flashing light "burglar alarm" could mean that there was larger prey in the vicinity. Her theory proved right. A live giant squid was captured for the first time on film in 2012!