Independent research on the academic benefits of the Advanced Placement English Language and Composition course indicates that not all students receive academic benefits from participating in the course. In a study with a sample size of over 90,000, the authors found that students who took the AP English Language and Composition course did not receive any increase in academic achievement unless they also prepared for and took the AP test. The authors controlled for over 70 intervening variables and found that AP students who took and passed the English Composition and Literature exam had ACT scores that were points higher than non-AP students or AP English students who did not take their course's AP test.  This led the authors to state that AP participation "... is not beneficial to students who merely enroll in the courses ..."  :p. 414
Several states use Advanced Placement data for accountability purposes, and . News and World Report use data on Advanced Placement course offerings and participation to rank high schools.  However, studies of local school districts  and the United States as a whole  show that increasing AP participation does not increase the overall academic achievement or school quality at the group (., high school, racial/ethnic group, nation) level. This led one researcher to state, "Clearly, offering AP alone will not magically turn a failing school into a successful one."